Reproductive Services

Crum Equine Veterinary Services Offers a Full range of Reproductive and Neonatal Services

Quote Sheet attached with estimated costs for Mare Breeding Services

*Breeding Quote


Mare Services:

  • Rectal Palpations and Ultrasound Examinations to determine : stage of pregnancy, the presence of twin embryos, stage of estrus cycle for breeding, presence of uterine fluid that may indicate infection, appearance and activity of the ovaries, etc
  • Uterine Cultures and Sensitivities: Swabs are used to collect cells and secretions from the uterine lining. The swabs are then processed for bacterial and/or fungal cultures to determine if a uterine infection is present. If the culture grows bacteria or fungus, the sensitivity of the growth to antibiotics is determined to guide treatment regimens.
  • Uterine Biopsies: A specialized instrument is used to sample a small piece of the uterine lining (endometrium). This piece of tissue is evaluated microscopically to determine the cellular structure and health. Uterine Biopsies can help determine a mare’s likelyhood of becoming pregnant and maintaining a pregnancy to term. Uterine biopsies can be a wise investment for older mares or mares that have had problems conceiving in the past.
  • Uterine Cytology: A swab is used to collect cells and secretions from the uterine lining. This procedure is often done in conjunction with a uterine culture. A slide made from the swab is evaluated under a microscope using specialized stains to determine what kind of cells are present, the health of the cells, and to determine if there are bacteria or fungal organisms present.
  • Insemination: deposition of fresh cooled semen into the uterus after following the mare’s reproductive cycle and administering any necessary hormones to prepare the mare for breeding and the impending pregnancy. Sterile technique is used to minimize the risks of uterine infections. Fresh cooled semen is deposited into the uterus just prior to ovulation (within 24 hours of ovulation).
  • Pregnancy Examinations: After breeding, mares are first checked for pregnancy 14-18 days from ovulation. Ultrasound examinations of the mare for pregnancy are important at this stage to identify twin pregnancies. This is also a good time to set the mare up for rebreeding if she is not pregnant (open). The pregnancy is then rechecked between 25-35 days from ovulation to ensure the growing embryo has a heartbeat. This is also another opportunity to ensure that a twin pregnancy is not present since twin pregnancies can be very dangerous for the mare. Pregnancies are then rechecked at 45 and 60 days of gestation to ensure the embryo is growing appropriately. A palpation recheck is performed at five months of gestation to be sure the mare is still pregnant prior to administering rhinopneumonitis (pneumobort) vaccinations. This last check is also one additional time to be sure the mare has not aborted the pregnancy.
    • Some breeding contracts require a different schedule for pregnancy conformation. Our veterinarians will work with you to satisfy the requirements of each individual contract.
  • Hormonal Profiles: A mare’s hormones change during the course of pregnancy. We can use blood testing to determine hormone levels that can help us determine the viability of the pregnancy, impending ovulation, the need for hormonal supplementation during pregnancy, etc.

Neonatal Services

  • Newborn Foal Examinations
    • Complete physical examination, ophthalmic examination, umbilical stalk examination
    • IgG (antibody levels)
    • Routine bloodwork to determine the health of your new foal
    • Angular limb evaluation
  • Colostrum Supplementation
    • Foals that are not nursing adequately can be tubed with colostrums or concentrated IgG to supplement their nutrition
  • Plasma Transfusions
    • For foals with low antibody (IgG) levels
  • Angular Limb Evaluations
    • Consultation with farriers and owners to determine
      treatment protocols to straighten a foal’s limbs
    • Radiograph evaluation
    • Splinting/casting/bandaging
    • Hoof wall extensions